Unsolved mysteries of the Solar system
While the Solar system in General and Earth in particular is the only house people, we need to know about this house. And what? Humanity is grappling over the years, it would seem, not so complicated questions, and no answers.
1. The Oort Cloud. Does the Oort cloud
The Oort cloud is the biggest mystery of the Solar system. People have never seen this hypothetical plot of the Universe, which, according to theories, is a place of formation of the comets with a long period of treatment. Scientists believe that the Oort cloud is located at a distance from 50 thousand to 100 thousand. E. from our Sun. Its outer boundaries lie on the boundary of the Solar system, and billions of bodies out of the Oort cloud is gravitationally bound to the Sun.
2. The anomaly of the spacecraft “pioneer”. Why probes pioneer deviate from the course?
Space probes “pioneer 10” and “pioneer 11” were launched in 1972 and 1973, respectively, to study the outer limits of the Solar system. NASA scientists have observed significant deviations of vehicles from the course, due probably to the action of gravity of the Sun. When more detailed calculation of the acceleration of the spacecraft found a very weak force of unknown nature, which operated on them.
One theory explains this phenomenon so: replaceable infra-red radiation around the buildings of the probes could provoke the exit Fotosobraniya on one side of the probe, giving a little push in the direction of the Sun. Recently, precise calculations showed that the most likely cause is the case.
3. The Kuiper Belt. Why the Kuiper belt ends abruptly?
The Kuiper belt is a huge cluster of asteroids in the Solar system beyond Neptune, forming a ring around the Sun. The Kuiper belt consists of millions of stone and metal blocks, which are 200 times more massive than the secondary object from the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Just in the Kuiper belt is the dwarf planet Pluto.
The Kuiper belt is a little researched area of the Solar system: scientists await the arrival of the NASA probe “New horizons” to Pluto by the beginning of 2015. Therefore, the question of why the number of objects in the Kuiper belt suddenly decreases at a distance of 50 and. E. remains open. This phenomenon is quite strange, because theoretically the number should only increase with distance from the Sun.
4. Cosmic dust in comets. As Stardust that formed at high temperatures, appears in comet ice?
Comets are composed of solids and frozen liquid. They come from the Kuiper belt or the Oort cloud is hypothetical.
During the NASA mission “Stardust” in 2004, with the comet Wild-2 samples were taken of the substance. It turned out that some dust particles from the frozen body of the comet formed at very high temperatures. How do these tiny particles, for the formation of which requires a temperature of over 1000 Kelvin, could undertake if the comet came from the Kuiper belt?
Solar system, formed from a nebula 4.6 billion years ago, during cooling, formed a huge disk. Samples of matter from comets could be formed in the Central portions of the disk, near the young Sun. What pushed them to the far boundaries of our system? What was the mechanism? It is still unknown.
5. The temperature of the solar corona. Why is the solar atmosphere hot surface of the Sun?
On this mystery scientists struggle for decades. Early spectroscopic studies have shown that the solar atmosphere, whose temperature is about one million Kelvin, the hot Photosphere, with a temperature only 6 thousand Kelvin.
It seems that all the laws of physics are being disrupted here. After all, if you turn on the light bulb, the air around the bulb will not be hotter than the spiral.
Scientists believe that the mechanism of filament of the crown can be the result of applying magnetic forces in the Solar atmosphere. In turn, responsible for this mechanism can be either nanospace or waves plugs. Perhaps two factors work at the same time.
6. The Atmosphere Of Titan. Why Titan has a dense nitrogen atmosphere?
Titan, one of Saturn’s moons, is unique in the Solar system planet-satellite with a dense atmosphere. Titanium, which is 80% more massive than our moon, is the second largest satellite in the Solar system (the largest – Ganymede, moon of Jupiter).
Titan’s atmosphere is denser only half of the earth’s and consists mainly of nitrogen (95%). Nitrogen is about the same number in the earth’s atmosphere (78% by volume). So where did all the nitrogen on Earth and on Titan? This is a mystery.
7. The Tilt Of Uranus. Why Uranus rotates on its side?
Strange planet is Uranus: while most of the planets in the Solar system rotate on their axis more or less vertical position, Uranus is lying on its side the inclination of the axis is 98 degrees. This means that for a very long period (approximately 42) of its North and South poles alternately looking at the Sun.
Some of the scientists explains that Uranium was once “knocked off course” by some very large space object. Others argue this phenomenon is the result of gravitational forces of Jupiter and Saturn.
8. The Tunguska meteorite. What caused the explosion at Tunguska?
In 1908, the Solar system threw at us space body, the nature of which we know nothing. Eyewitnesses say about the bright lights that were seen in different parts of the world. On the site of the incident area of 2000 km2 were felled like matchsticks 80 million trees, huge areas were burnt out and impact crater of the meteorite was never found.
Scientists are still lost in conjecture, making incredible assumptions — from the fall of a comet or asteroid prior to the crash of the starship. One of the interesting concepts, the body fell at all, not where it is considered, that is, the crater is located at some distance from the proposed site of the disaster.
9. The Mysteries Of Mars. Why hemisphere of Mars, so strikingly different from each other?
The Northern hemisphere of the red planet is mainly lowlands, while the South is solid craters and mountain ranges. Researchers from the Institute Caltech calculated that a huge cosmic body the size from 1600 to 2700 km in diameter could form the lowlands of the Northern hemisphere, “erasing” of the mountain.
Another mystery of Mars is a mysterious disappearance of a research spacecraft sent to the planet. Statistics are startling: it shows that about two-thirds of research expeditions have failed due to the disappearance of machines, robots and probes sent to Mars.
10. The temperature difference at the poles of the Sun. Why is South pole colder than the North of the Sun?
For almost 17 years, the solar probe Ulysses sent to Earth information about the Sun. Thanks to this mission we know that the South pole of the Sun on 80 thousand Kelvin cooler North. “Ulysses” measured sun temperature, taking samples of the oxygen ions from the solar wind at a distance of 300 million km above the North and South poles of the star.