The planet Jupiter

Jupiter, the fifth in distance from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar system – distance from Sun-5.2 times further than Earth, and spends some turnover on orbit for almost 12 years. Equatorial diameter of Jupiter is 142 600 km (11 times the diameter of the Earth). The period of rotation of Jupiter is the shortest of all the planets – 9 h 50 min 30 s. at the equator and 9 h. 55 min. 40 s. in the mid-latitudes. Thus, the Jupiter, like the Sun, rotates as a rigid body – rotation speed varies in different latitudes. Because of the rapid rotation of this planet has strong compression at the poles. The mass of Jupiter is equal to 318 Earth masses. The average density of 1.33 g/cm3, which is close to the density of the Sun. The rotation axis of Jupiter is nearly perpendicular to the plane of its orbit. Even in a small telescope shows the polar compression of Jupiter and bands on its surface parallel to the equator of the planet

The Structure Of Jupiter

The visible surface of Jupiter is an upper level clouds surrounding the planet. This ensures that all details on the surface of Jupiter is constantly changing its appearance. From sustainable parts known Great Red spot, observed for over 300 years. It is a huge oval formation, the size of about 35,000 km in longitude and 14000 in latitude between the southern tropicheskii southern temperate bands. Color it reddish, but is subject to change. Spectral analysis of Jupiter revealed that its atmosphere consists of molecular hydrogen and its compounds: methane and ammonia. In small quantities also present are ethane, acetylene, and phosphene water vapor. The clouds of Jupiter are composed of crystals and droplets of ammonia. In December 1973 with the help of the American spacecraft “pioneer -10” failed to detect the presence of helium in Jupiter’s atmosphere and measure its content. We can assume that the atmosphere of Jupiter at 74% hydrogen and 26% helium. The share of methane accounts for less than 0.1% of the atmospheric composition of the planet. Atmospheric layer has a thickness of about 1000 km Below the pure gas layer in the atmosphere is the layer of clouds that we see in the telescope.

Currently built a two-layer model of the internal structure of the planet. The shell of the planet consists mostly of gas components (hydrogen, helium, neon), and the nucleus of heavy components (oxides of silicon, magnesium and iron, sulfides, iron, Nickel, etc.). The layer of liquid molecular hydrogen has a thickness of 24000 km At this depth the pressure is 300 HPa, and the temperature of 11000 K, the hydrogen becomes liquid metallic state, i.e., becomes like liquid metal. A layer of liquid metallic hydrogen has a thickness of about 42000 km. Inside is a small iron-silicate solid core with a radius of 4000 km. On the border of the core reaches a temperature of 30,000 K. the mass of Jupiter’s core is 3-4% of the total mass.

In 1956 it was discovered radio emission of Jupiter on the wave of 3 cm, corresponding to thermal radiation with a temperature of 145 K. from measurements in the infrared range of the temperature of the outer clouds of Jupiter 130 K. the Flights of American spacecraft “pioneer 10” and “pioneer-11” has allowed to Refine the structure of the magnetosphere of Jupiter, and the temperature change of the cloud layer largely confirmed known from ground-based observations is the result: the amount of heat that Jupiter emits more than twice the thermal energy that the planet receives from the Sun. It is possible that coming from the bowels of the planet the heat released in the process of slow compression of the giant planets (1 mm. per year). The magnetic field of the planet is complex and is composed of two fields: the dipole (as the Earth), which extends up to 1.5 million km from Jupiter, and not a dipole, which occupies the rest of the magnetosphere. The magnetic field at the surface is 20 times higher than on Earth. In addition to thermal and decimetric radio emission of Jupiter is the source of the radio bursts (sudden gain radiated power) at a wavelength from 4 to 85 m in length from a fraction of a second to several minutes or even hours. However, prolonged disturbance is not an uplift but a series of surges – a peculiar noise and lightning storms. According to current hypotheses, these bursts are attributed to plasma oscillations in the ionosphere of the planet.

The Moons Of Jupiter

Jupiter has 16 satellites. The first 4 satellites discovered by Galileo – IO, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto. They, as well as the inner, closest the satellite Amalthea are moving almost in the plane of the equator of the planet. IO and Europa are almost comparable to the Moon, and Ganymede and Callisto, even more mercury, although the mass is considerably inferior to him. Compared with other satellites, Galilean investigated in more detail. The outer moons revolve around the planet on highly elongated orbits with large angles of inclination to the equator. It’s a little body – from 10 to 120 km, apparently irregular shapes. 4 the outermost satellites of Jupiter revolve about the planet in the opposite direction. According to the data obtained from the American spacecraft Voyager, Jupiter is surrounded in the Equatorial region of the ring system. The ring is located at a distance of 50,000 km from the planet’s surface, its width is about 1000 km the Existence of Jupiter’s rings were predicted in 1960 by astronomer S. K. Bo on the basis of observations.

In 1976, the physics M. Acuna and N. Ness of Goddardschool space flight center NASA has analyzed the information received from the “Pioneer 11”, and noticed some strange variations in the interplanetary magnetic field in the vicinity of Jupiter.

Because the deviations were recorded when “pioneer-11” was held just 43000 km above the cloud tops of Jupiter, that is quite close to the planet, where the “magnetic disturbers of the peace”, it would seem, had not existed, it required a special explanation. Acuna and ness offered a choice of a few and among them is that, at about 59000 miles from Jupiter passes the ring, which affects the planet’s magnetic field.

“Voyager-1” has managed to make the first ever picture of the ring of Jupiter, six times exponaval for 11 min the same frame. As a result, the image dimly glowing ring was detected as a broad light band, obliquely intersecting the center of the picture. At the time of shooting the outer edge of the ring was 1 million 212 thousand kilometers from Voyager. Later the Pictures were made by “Voyager-2”.

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