Sun Solar system
The sun is an ordinary star, whose age is about 5 billion years. On the Sun’s surface temperature is about 5.5 degrees Celsius, in the center, it reaches 14 million degrees. The sun is a huge ball of gas, the diameter of which is almost 109 times the diameter of Earth. But in relation to other stars the Sun is not too big.
The yellow light of the Sun comes from the layer of the solar atmosphere, having a thickness of 500 km and is called the Photosphere. Almost all solar energy, including heat and light, comes to us from the Photosphere, although it originally produced in the depths of the Sun.
The surface of the Sun — blistered. These bubbles, or foam, is called the solar fraction. Due to convection in the solar atmosphere, the thermal energy from the lower layers is transferred to the Photosphere, giving it a foamy structure. In the 1960s, astronomers found that the upper atmosphere of the Sun approximately once every five minutes is raised and lowered. So the Sun seems to vibrate. By studying these vibrations, astronomers hope to find out what is inside a sun ball.
Spots on the surface
In the surface layer of the Sun where its energy eventually escapes in the form of light, astronomers can observe a wide variety of solar activity. Sunspots are obvious sign of this. It breakology and dark areas of the solar disk compared to the overall brightness of the Photosphere. The large spots can be seen when the Sun sets behind the horizon. Exactly conducted their observations of the Chinese astronomers 2000 years ago. Sun spots have a darker Central part, called the shadow. The shadow is surrounded by a less dark penumbra. Giant sun spots — these are areas where strong magnetic forces inside the Sun break through the superficial layers. Large spots larger than the Earth several times and may persist for several months.
The sun, unlike the Earth, rotates not as a solid celestial body. Different parts of the Sun rotate at different speeds. For example, the highest rotation speed at the equator: it describes the range of 25 days, while at the poles one rotation takes 35 days. All this is because the Sun is a ball of gas. Sunspots are an example of solar activity. “Weather events” in the solar atmosphere completely different from earth. Magnetic storms and explosions, called flares, suddenly rise above the surface of the Sun. Solar storms have impacton the Earth, so astronomers are keeping the Sun under constant surveillance.
The outer layers of the Sun
Solar eclipses allow us to see the layers of atmosphere of the Sun that lie above the Photosphere. Ring of pinkish light coming from the chromosphere, the temperature of which is about 15 thousand degrees. During a full Eclipse around the Sun you can see the white halo, the solar corona. It actually extends over a distance of several radii from the Sun. Near the Sun its temperature can reach 2 million degrees. Hot corona emits very little light, but it comes from a powerful x-ray radiation.
How long will the Sun live?
Every second the Sun recycles 600 million tons of hydrogen, producing about 4 million tons of helium. Comparing this speed with the mass of the Sun, the question arises: how long does our light?
Of course, the Sun won’t last forever, although there is still a very long life. For processing half of its hydrogen fuel it took 5 billion years. In subsequent years, the Sun will gradually increase in size and to warm up. When all the hydrogen in the Central core of the Sun is used up(i.e. after about another 5 billion years), it will be three times more than now. All the Earth’s oceans will evaporate and the planet itself will be transformed into a clot of lava.
In the depths of the Sun helium nucleus are combined, forming the cores of carbon, and eventually the Sun will cool down, turning into a ball of nuclear waste, i.e. a white dwarf.