Solar system, its model and structure

The universe (cosmos) is a whole world around us, limitless in time and space and infinitely diverse in forms, which takes forever moving matter. The eternity of the Universe in part you can imagine on a clear night with billions of different size luminous shimmering dots in the sky, representing the distant worlds. Rays of light at a speed of 300 000 km/s from the most remote parts of the Universe reach the Earth about 10 billion years.

According to scientists, the universe resulting from Big Bang 17 billion years ago.

It consists of clusters of stars, planets, cosmic dust and other cosmic bodies. These bodies form a system of planets with satellites (for example. Solar system), galaxies, Metagalaxy (accumulation of galaxies).

Galaxy (postdegree. galaktikos – milk, milky, from the Greek gala – milk) — a vast stellar system that consists of many stars, star clusters and associations, gaseous and dust nebulae, as well as individual atoms and particles scattered in space.

In the Universe there are many galaxies of different size and shape.

All the stars visible from Earth, are part of the milky Way galaxy. His name is polukilometre the fact that most of the stars you can see clear at night as the milky Way, a whitish blurred stripes.

In total the milky Way Galaxy contains about 100 billion stars.

Our galaxy is in constant rotation. Its velocity in the Universe — 1.5 million km/h. If you look at our galaxy from its North pole, the rotation is clockwise. The sun and the nearby stars make a full rotation around the galaxy in 200 million years. This period considered galactic year.

Size and shape similar to the milky Way galaxy, the Andromeda galaxy, or the Andromeda galaxy, which is approximately 2 million light years from our galaxy. Light year — the distance traveled by light in a year, approximately equal to 10 13 km (the speed of light is 300 000 km/s).

For clarity explore movement and location of stars, planets and other celestial bodies use the concept of the celestial sphere.

The main lines of the celestial sphere

The celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere of arbitrarily large radius centered on the observer. The celestial sphere is a projection of stars, the Sun, Moon, planets.

The most important line on the celestial sphere are: vertical line, Zenith, Nadir, celestial equator, Ecliptic, celestial Meridian, etc.

Plumb line — a straight line passing through the center of the celestial sphere and coinciding with the direction of the thread of the plumb line in the place of observation. For an observer located on the Earth’s surface, perpendicular to the line passes through the center of the Earth and the observation point.

Vertical line intersects the surface of the celestial sphere in two points – the Zenith, head over to the observer and Nadir is the antipodal point.

The great circle of the celestial sphere, plane of which is perpendicular to the plumb line, is a mathematical horizon. He divides the surface of the celestial sphere into two halves: a visible for the observer with the vertex at the Zenith, and invisible, with the vertex at the Nadir.

Diameter, around which occurs the rotation of the celestial sphere, the axis of the world. It intersects with the surface of the celestial sphere in two points – the North pole and South pole the world peace. The North pole is one, by which the rotation of the celestial sphere is clockwise, if you look at the sphere from the outside.

The great circle of the celestial sphere, plane of which is perpendicular to the axis of the world, is called the celestial equator. He divides the surface of the celestial sphere into two hemispheres: the Northern, with vertex at the North pole of the world, and South, with vertex at the South pole of the world.

The great circle of the celestial sphere, plane of which passes through the sheer line and the axis of the world, is the celestial Meridian. He divides the surface of the celestial sphere into two hemispheres – East and West.

The intersection of the plane of the celestial Meridian and the plane of the mathematical horizon – Meridian line.

The Ecliptic (from the Greek. ekieipsis – Eclipse) is a great circle of the celestial sphere along which the apparent annual movement of the Sun, or rather its center.

The Ecliptic is inclined to the plane of the celestial equator at the angle of 23°26’21”.

To make it easier to memorize the location of stars in the sky, people in ancient times invented to unite the brightest in the constellation.

Currently 88 known constellations that bear the names of mythical characters (Hercules, Pegasus, etc.), signs of the zodiac (Taurus, Pisces, Cancer, etc.), objects (Libra, Lira, etc.)

The summer-fall constellations

The origin of galaxies. The solar system and individual planets still remains a mystery of nature. There are several hypotheses. Currently it is believed that our galaxy formed from gas clouds composed of hydrogen. At the initial stage of evolution of the galaxy from interstellar gas-dust environment formed the first stars, and 4.6 billion years ago — Solar system.

The composition of the solar system

The totality of the heavenly bodies moving around the Sun as the Central body, forms a Solar system. It is located almost on the outskirts of the milky Way galaxy. The solar system participates in the rotation around the galactic center. The CE movement speed is about 220 km/s. This movement occurs in the direction of the constellation Cygnus.

The composition of the Solar system can be represented in the form of a simplified scheme.

More than 99.9% of the mass of matter in the Solar system has the Sun and only 0.1 % for all other elements.

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