Planets of the solar system.

Solar system – 8 planets and over 63 of the satellite, which are opened more often, several dozen comets and many asteroids. All cosmic bodies move in their precise directional trajectories around the Sun, which is 1000 times harder than any body in the solar system combined. The center of the solar system is the Sun – the star around which orbits the turning of the planet. They do not emit heat and not light, but only reflect the light of the Sun. In the solar system now officially recognized as the 8 planets. Briefly, in order of distance from the sun, we list them all. And now a few definitions.

A planet is a celestial body that must satisfy four conditions:

1. the body must revolve around the star (for example, around the Sun);

2. the body must have sufficient gravity to have a spherical or similar shape;

3. the body should not be near its orbit of other large bodies;

4. the body must not be a star

The star is a cosmic body that emits light and is a powerful source of energy. This is due, firstly, its internal thermonuclear reactions, and secondly, the processes of gravitational compression, resulting in releases massive amounts of energy.

The satellites of the planets. The solar system includes the Moon and the natural satellites of other planets that have all of them except for mercury and Venus. There are more than 60 satellites. Most satellites of the outer planets were discovered when they received Photos taken by an automatic spacecraft. The smallest moon of Jupiter – Leda – in cross-section of only 10 km.

The sun is a star, without which there could exist life on Earth. It gives us energy and warmth. According to the classification of stars, the Sun is a yellow dwarf. Age about 5 billion years. Has a diameter at the equator is equal to 1 392 000 km, 109 times that of earth. The period of rotation at the equator is 25.4 days and 34 days at the poles. The mass of the Sun 2×10 in 27 degree tons, about 332950 times the mass of Earth. The temperature inside the core is approximately 15 million degrees Celsius. The surface temperature of about 5500 degrees Celsius. The chemical composition of the Sun consists of 75% hydrogen, and the other 25% of the elements most helium. Now, in order understand how the planets around the sun rotates, the solar system and features of planets.

1. Mercury Four inner planets (closest to the Sun) mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars have a solid surface. They are less than four giant planets. Mercury moves faster than the other planets, burning sunlight during the day and freezing at night. The period of revolution around the Sun: 87,97 days.

Diameter at equator: 4878 km

The period of rotation (rotation on axis): 58 days.

Surface temperature: -170 350 day and night.

Atmosphere: very thin, helium.

Many satellites: 0.

The main satellites of the planet: 0.

2. Venus more Earth-like size and brightness. Monitoring it is difficult due to its enveloping clouds. The surface is red-hot stony desert. The period of revolution around the Sun: 224,7 days.

The diameter at the equator: 12104 km

The period of rotation (rotation on axis): 243 days.

Surface temperature: 480 degrees (average).

Atmosphere: thick, mostly carbon dioxide.

3. “The land” apparently, the Earth was formed from gas and dust clouds, and other planets. The particles of gas and dust colliding, gradually “grow” the planet. The temperature on the surface reached 5000 degrees Celsius. Then the Earth cooled and covered with a solid stone crust. But the temperature in the subsoil is still quite high to 4500 degrees. The rocks in the subsurface and melted in the eruption of the volcanoes pour out over the surface. Only on earth there is water. So here and life exists. It is located relatively close to the Sun to get much needed warmth and light, but far enough so as not to burn. The period of revolution around the Sun: 365,3 days.

The diameter at the equator: 12756 km.

The period of rotation of the planet (rotation axis): 23 hours 56 min.

Surface temperature: 22 degrees (average).

Atmosphere: mostly nitrogen and oxygen.

4. “Mars” because of the similarity with the Earth believed that there is life. But descended to the surface of Mars the spacecraft signs of life were found. This is the fourth in order from the planet. The period of revolution around Sun: 687 days.

The diameter of the planet at the equator: 6794 km.

The period of rotation (rotation on axis): 24 hours 37 min.

Surface temperature: -23 degrees (average).

Planet atmosphere: thin, mostly carbon dioxide.

Many satellites: 2.

The main satellites, in order: Phobos, Deimos.

5. Jupiter Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are composed of hydrogen and other gases. Jupiter surpasses the Earth more than 10 times the diameter, 300 times by mass, and 1300 times the volume. It is more than twice more massive than all the planets of the Solar system combined. How long does the planet Jupiter need to become a star? You need its mass to increase 75 times! The period of revolution around Sun: 11 years 314 days.

The diameter of the planet at the equator: 143884 km.

The period of rotation (revolution around the axis): 9 hours 55 min.

The planet’s surface temperature: -150 degrees (average).

Atmosphere: mostly hydrogen and helium.

Number of satellites: 16 (+ ring).

The main satellites of the planets in order: IO, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.

6. Saturn Is the 2 largest planet in the solar system. Saturn is attracting views thanks to the ring system, formed from ice, rocks and dust that orbit around a planet. There are three main rings with an outside diameter of 270000 km, but their thickness is about 30 meters. The period of revolution around Sun: 29 years 168 days.

The diameter of the planet at the equator: 120536 km

The period of rotation (rotation on axis): 10 hours 14 min.

Surface temperature: -180 degrees (average).

Atmosphere: mostly hydrogen and helium.

Number of satellites: 18 (+ ring).

Main satellites: Titan.

7. Uranus is a Unique planet in the Solar system. Its peculiarity is that it revolves around the Sun is not everything, and “lying on side”. Uranus also has rings, although they are harder to see. In 1986 “Voyager -2” flew by at a distance of 64 000 km, he had six hours to take Photographs, which he successfully implemented. The period of revolution: 84 years 4 days.

The diameter at the equator: 51118 km.

The period of rotation of the planet (rotation axis): 17 hours 14 min.

Surface temperature: -214 degrees (average).

Atmosphere: mostly hydrogen and helium.

Many satellites: 15 (+ ring).

8. “Neptune” At the moment, Neptune is the last planet of the Solar system. His discovery occurred by way of mathematical calculations, and then saw through the telescope. In 1989, “Voyager–2” flew past. He has made striking Images of the blue surface of Neptune and its largest satellite Triton. The period of revolution around the Sun: 164 years 292 days.

The diameter at the equator: 50538 km.

How did planet. Approximately 5-6 billion years ago one of the gas-dust clouds of our Galaxy (the milky way), having the form of a disc, began to shrink toward the center, gradually forming the present Sun. Further, according to one theory, under the powerful forces of attraction, a large number of particles of dust and gas orbiting the Sun, began to stick together in balls forming the future of the planet. According to another theory, the dust cloud immediately split into separate clusters of particles, which are compressed and compacted to form the current planet. Now 8 planets around the Sun rotates constantly.

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