Manned mission to Mars

By the end of XX century the mankind will be able to send a manned expedition to the planet Mars. The Soviet Union, the United States and other countries could combine resources to implement joint flight. In 1969 was declared a long-term program of the Soviet Union in the field of manned flights in which was planned the creation of orbital stations and laboratories with departing crews as the primary means of extensive exploration of outer space. They will be the “spaceports in space,” launch pads for flights to other planets. There will be large scientific laboratory for research into space technology and biology, medicine and Geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics.

Academician B. N. Petrov, at that time Chairman of the Council at the USSR Academy of Sciences on international cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space “Intercosmos”, noted that orbital space platforms will carry out the final Assembly of the spacecraft systems to conduct training classes of astronauts, which will be used to space conditions and to participate in the Assembly and testing of interplanetary ships.

In the Soviet Union there is a program capable of deducing in space of the modules of spacecraft and build space stations in earth orbit. Part of this program has already been implemented on orbital stations Salyut, launched by carrier rocket “proton-D”. All onelinedrawing the development of orbital factories and stations with multipurpose interchangeable equipment. In such orbital workshops to gather and assemble large spacecraft for the exploration of Mars and other planets. The founder of liquid propulsion in the Soviet Union academician V. P. Glushko believed that space ships with combined propulsion systems offer great possibilities in the study of the planets of the Solar system. He believes that the combination of chemical, nuclear, and electric rocket engines to overcome the vast interplanetary distances with very high speeds and reduce travel times from years to months.

Right. Nuclear missile system prepared for the test engine in the Test center. of. the. Nevada. The reactor and nozzle are clearly visible above the lettering NRX (NERVA Reactor Experiment – testing reactor “Nerve”).

Attempt to create a closed biological life support systems for space ships and stations should be implemented before the flight to Mars. Stay of astronauts in orbit for a long period of time on the space station “salute” will allow to accumulate the experience necessary for flights to Mars.

Left. The flames from the reactor plant “Phoebus-1 In” up in the sky during a bench test. of. the. Nevada on February 24, 1967 the Experiment was part of research programme “the Rover”.

A similar course was widely discussed in the United States when NASA was developed in the late 60-ies of the program of development of space technology in postolowski period, but then the costs of the war in Vietnam and other national considerations led to a sharp reduction in the funding of space research and the need to complete the program “Apollo” during its heyday.

Rejected option

The idea of sending a mission to Mars is not new. It was part of a long-term program of manned space flight, developed by a group of space research in the intoxicating days of enthusiasm after a triumphant first landing on the moon. Archaeologists of the future may be to wrestle with exploring an abandoned area. Nevada, called the “field of fools”, and the surrounding barren mountains, which became such after the organization here at NASA and the atomic energy Commission, the U.S. Testing of nuclear missiles and conducting a series of tests (see table), prior to the creation of the first experimental flight models of nuclear engines.

The principle of the device is quite simple. Instead of the combustion chamber for burning liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen in a conventional rocket motor in a nuclear reactor include a fuel composition graphite – enriched uranium, which works as a heat source. Through the channels of the reactor is pumped liquid hydrogen at high pressure, when heated, forms a powerful jet flowing. Oxygen is required. The attractiveness of this engine (although it’s heavier and more expensive) is that the reactor, acting as a heat exchanger raises the temperature of hydrogen to a level at which its specific energy is increased by 70% (p. 217 this process is represented in the figure).

In may 1961, during the approval process of landing of the ship “Apollo” on the moon, it was recommended to continue work on nuclear rocket engines. A project was developed “Nerve” (eng. NERVA — Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application nuclear engine for rocket applications on devices). NASA, in conjunction with the atomic energy Commission has contracted with industrial Association “Aerojet General Corporation and Westinghouse electric Corporation” creation engine “Nerve” pull about 26 cu. NASA representative explained: “”the Nerve” — stage rocket with a nuclear engine can provide automatic transportation of the spacecraft to study the surfaces of Mars, Venus, mercury, and some moons of Jupiter and asteroids. Delivery of soil samples to Earth will be possible only in some cases.”

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