How long to fly to Mars

The planet Mars is one of the brightest objects in our night sky, even visible to the naked eye and resembles a bright red star. About every two years, our planet and Mars is a maximum converging. Such an event in astronomy is called “confrontation”. At this point, Mars will be only fifty-five millions of miles from Earth. People capitalize on that by sending to the Red Planet during the confrontation spaceships. So how much to fly to Mars ?

The orbit of Mars and Earth

The complete journey from Earth to Mars takes between 150 to 300 days to allow for the speed run, the location of the planets and the length of the path, which must pass the spacecraft. In this case the dominant factor is only the amount of fuel. The more fuel, the faster it will take flight.

History of flights to Mars

The first ever space ship, committed trip Earth-Mars, was created by NASA’s Mariner 4. It was launched in late November 1964 and appeared on Mars July 14, 1965. Mariner 4 reached Mars in 228 days. Continue reading

Inside the comet 67P found no major voids

Interested in everything connected with high technologies.

Inside the comet 67P/Churyumov — Gerasimenko there are no large voids. The mission of “Rosetta” the European space Agency made measurements that clearly demonstrated and solved the old mystery. Comets are icy debris left over from the formation of the planets 4.6 billion years ago. Spacecraft have visited a total of eight comets, and through these missions we pulled a picture of the basic properties of these space-time capsules. On some questions the answers were found, others appeared.

Comets, as we know, consist of a mixture of ice and dust, and if there were compact, gravity superior to water. However, previous measurements have shown that some of them have very low density, much lower than water ice. Low density means that the comet must be extremely porous.

But what is this porosity: due to large voids in the subsurface of the comet, or due to a more homogeneous structure with low density? Continue reading

Interplanetary and orbital space flights.

Radiation risk for astronauts (radiobiological rationale)

The book covers a fairly wide range of materials concerning the sources of cosmic rays affecting astronauts in the implementation of interplanetary and orbital space flight, the quantities of the doses, the reactions of individual systems and the whole organism of animals and humans, and changes its stability when the complex character of radiation exposure in space.

The results of a 14-year experiment on a large lot dogs with simulation values of the doses and nature of dose distribution in time, which will affect astronauts during the flight to Mars. The considered models of formation of radiation damage in the hematopoietic system and the level of the organism during long exposures with varying dose rate, and the model of radiation mortality rate of mammals, describing accelerated aging and the changing age-specific mortality rates in a dose-and dose rate radiation exposure.

The book presents the algorithms and results of calculations of the radiation risk in the process of interplanetary and orbital missions throughout the life of astronauts, as well as data on possible sacramentoa life expectancy. The new approaches to the regulation of radiation exposure and justifies the new lower acceptable dose to astronauts during flights and during the whole professional activity. Continue reading

Flight to Mars
Modern physics. A flight to Mars. Russia is technically ready to organize a manned mission to Mars in early 2020-ies, the Director of the space research Institute of Russian Academy…

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Space and Earth
Space when observed with the naked eye Comets and meteors Unlike stars and planets that the naked eye perceives as a luminous point, the comet is observed in the form…

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The planet Jupiter
Length of day: To 9.93 hours Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar system. The surface of Jupiter are not made of…

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