The sun and the solar system was formed about 4.5 billion years ago. The solar system originated from a cloud, composed of gas and dust particles moving. Under the influence of its weight of it formed a disk in the center of which formed the Sun .
Gradually within the disk began to form solid materials. They faced each other, whereby a large celestial body. Their size corresponds to the existing planets. Inside the nebulae, where the temperature was high enough to form rocky planets. Far from the center formed the giant planets, they contain a large amount of ice, and they were surrounded by a thick layer of gas.
Within the Solar system the temperature even higher, and planets formed from rocky debris of the solar nebula. They are in contact with each other, forming a large celestial body. They attract each other by virtue of the power of the law of gravity and give birth to planets of terrestrial group. The atmosphere of the Earth and Venus, the largest among them, tight.
The atmosphere of Mars, a smaller planet is less dense, and mercury. the smallest planet of this group, it is very sparse compared to earth is not readily available.
Outside the Solar system,on the contrary, or due to the large number of large heavenly bodies, or because of the excess water formed a huge body, surrounded by natural satellites. Continue reading
Unlike planets, comets move on highly elongated orbits, and therefore are visible only at short periods close to the Sun.
The main part of any comet is its nucleus .
According to the hypothesis of the famous American researcher of comets Fred Lawrence Whipple, cometary nucleus is an ice consisting of a mixture of frozen water and frozen gases interspersed with refractory rocky and metallic particles . Figuratively speaking, it looks like a “dirty iceberg”.
Let us imagine that we see the newly opened the comet, which is somewhere in the vicinity of Jupiter’s orbit. Seeing through the telescope hazy pale speck, like a spherical nebula (such unattractive are presented to the observer of a distant comet), we may be disappointed at first. With the approach of the comet to the Sun the solar flux increases. Comet “ice” begin to evaporate rapidly. Around the nucleus formed a vast glowing gas shell – coma. Together with the core of it is the head of the comet. Continue reading
By the end of XX century the mankind will be able to send a manned expedition to the planet Mars. The Soviet Union, the United States and other countries could combine resources to implement joint flight. In 1969 was declared a long-term program of the Soviet Union in the field of manned flights in which was planned the creation of orbital stations and laboratories with departing crews as the primary means of extensive exploration of outer space. They will be the “spaceports in space,” launch pads for flights to other planets. There will be large scientific laboratory for research into space technology and biology, medicine and Geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics.
Academician B. N. Petrov, at that time Chairman of the Council at the USSR Academy of Sciences on international cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space “Intercosmos”, noted that orbital space platforms will carry out the final Assembly of the spacecraft systems to conduct training classes of astronauts, which will be used to space conditions and to participate in the Assembly and testing of interplanetary ships.
In the Soviet Union there is a program capable of deducing in space of the modules of spacecraft and build space stations in earth orbit. Continue reading