The planet Mars is one of the brightest objects in our night sky, even visible to the naked eye and resembles a bright red star. About every two years, our planet and Mars is a maximum converging. Such an event in astronomy is called “confrontation”. At this point, Mars will be only fifty-five millions of miles from Earth. People capitalize on that by sending to the Red Planet during the confrontation spaceships. So how much to fly to Mars ?
The orbit of Mars and Earth
The complete journey from Earth to Mars takes between 150 to 300 days to allow for the speed run, the location of the planets and the length of the path, which must pass the spacecraft. In this case the dominant factor is only the amount of fuel. The more fuel, the faster it will take flight.
History of flights to Mars
The first ever space ship, committed trip Earth-Mars, was created by NASA’s Mariner 4. It was launched in late November 1964 and appeared on Mars July 14, 1965. Mariner 4 reached Mars in 228 days. Continue reading
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Inside the comet 67P/Churyumov — Gerasimenko there are no large voids. The mission of “Rosetta” the European space Agency made measurements that clearly demonstrated and solved the old mystery. Comets are icy debris left over from the formation of the planets 4.6 billion years ago. Spacecraft have visited a total of eight comets, and through these missions we pulled a picture of the basic properties of these space-time capsules. On some questions the answers were found, others appeared.
Comets, as we know, consist of a mixture of ice and dust, and if there were compact, gravity superior to water. However, previous measurements have shown that some of them have very low density, much lower than water ice. Low density means that the comet must be extremely porous.
But what is this porosity: due to large voids in the subsurface of the comet, or due to a more homogeneous structure with low density? Continue reading
By the end of XX century the mankind will be able to send a manned expedition to the planet Mars. The Soviet Union, the United States and other countries could combine resources to implement joint flight. In 1969 was declared a long-term program of the Soviet Union in the field of manned flights in which was planned the creation of orbital stations and laboratories with departing crews as the primary means of extensive exploration of outer space. They will be the “spaceports in space,” launch pads for flights to other planets. There will be large scientific laboratory for research into space technology and biology, medicine and Geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics.
Academician B. N. Petrov, at that time Chairman of the Council at the USSR Academy of Sciences on international cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space “Intercosmos”, noted that orbital space platforms will carry out the final Assembly of the spacecraft systems to conduct training classes of astronauts, which will be used to space conditions and to participate in the Assembly and testing of interplanetary ships.
In the Soviet Union there is a program capable of deducing in space of the modules of spacecraft and build space stations in earth orbit. Continue reading