Unlike planets, comets move on highly elongated orbits, and therefore are visible only at short periods close to the Sun.
The main part of any comet is its nucleus .
According to the hypothesis of the famous American researcher of comets Fred Lawrence Whipple, cometary nucleus is an ice consisting of a mixture of frozen water and frozen gases interspersed with refractory rocky and metallic particles . Figuratively speaking, it looks like a “dirty iceberg”.
Let us imagine that we see the newly opened the comet, which is somewhere in the vicinity of Jupiter’s orbit. Seeing through the telescope hazy pale speck, like a spherical nebula (such unattractive are presented to the observer of a distant comet), we may be disappointed at first. With the approach of the comet to the Sun the solar flux increases. Comet “ice” begin to evaporate rapidly. Around the nucleus formed a vast glowing gas shell – coma. Together with the core of it is the head of the comet. Continue reading
Jupiter, the fifth in distance from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar system – distance from Sun-5.2 times further than Earth, and spends some turnover on orbit for almost 12 years. Equatorial diameter of Jupiter is 142 600 km (11 times the diameter of the Earth). The period of rotation of Jupiter is the shortest of all the planets – 9 h 50 min 30 s. at the equator and 9 h. 55 min. 40 s. in the mid-latitudes. Thus, the Jupiter, like the Sun, rotates as a rigid body – rotation speed varies in different latitudes. Because of the rapid rotation of this planet has strong compression at the poles. The mass of Jupiter is equal to 318 Earth masses. The average density of 1.33 g/cm3, which is close to the density of the Sun. The rotation axis of Jupiter is nearly perpendicular to the plane of its orbit. Even in a small telescope shows the polar compression of Jupiter and bands on its surface parallel to the equator of the planet
The Structure Of Jupiter
The visible surface of Jupiter is an upper level clouds surrounding the planet. This ensures that all details on the surface of Jupiter is constantly changing its appearance. From sustainable parts known Great Red spot, observed for over 300 years. It is a huge oval formation, the size of about 35,000 km in longitude and 14000 in latitude between the southern tropicheskii southern temperate bands. Continue reading
Space when observed with the naked eye
Comets and meteors
Unlike stars and planets that the naked eye perceives as a luminous point, the comet is observed in the form of an elongated spot, in which through careful observation can see the relatively bright concentration – “head” and a conical “tail”. With the aid of the telescope each year find 5-10 comets, but rarely any of them are so bright that accessible to observation with the naked eye. Like planets, comets move around the Sun. But unlike the planetary orbits of the trajectory of comets typically have very elongated. The periods of revolution around the Sun fills the interval from a few years (comet Encke is for 3.28 years) to several thousand years (comet Hale-BOPP – 3000 years).
The comet nucleus, from which emerge jets of gas, plasma and dust all the more intense, the closer to the perfect Sun the comet is a huge (from kilometers to tens of kilometers in diameter) snowball. It is composed of molecules containing hydrogen, oxygen (e.g., H 2 O), carbon and nitrogen, as well as from dust, which escapes as ice sublimation (i.e., in the transition to the gaseous state under the action of radiation of the Sun). In the core there are larger solid particles. Continue reading