Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the module “Fily” reached the nearest point to the Sun
Apparatus “Rosetta” was launched into space in March 2004 with a spaceport in Kourou to study the comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko. To the destination apparatus has arrived in 2014 and is currently in orbit around the comet. November 12, 2014 on the surface of the investigated object was launched module “Fily”. He entered the history of space exploration, as the first probe successfully landing on a comet for the first time and managed to drill the surface for the taking of soil samples. Thanks to this unique scientific mission scientists expect to obtain detailed data about the physical and chemical structure of the comet, which will greatly expand human knowledge about the origin of the Universe.
According to him, the closer to the star in recent months, the comet’s activity has steadily increased. This is evidenced by the comparison of Photographs taken by Rosetta, the robot lander with a difference a year last summer and now. Continue reading
Radiation risk for astronauts (radiobiological rationale)
The book covers a fairly wide range of materials concerning the sources of cosmic rays affecting astronauts in the implementation of interplanetary and orbital space flight, the quantities of the doses, the reactions of individual systems and the whole organism of animals and humans, and changes its stability when the complex character of radiation exposure in space.
The results of a 14-year experiment on a large lot dogs with simulation values of the doses and nature of dose distribution in time, which will affect astronauts during the flight to Mars. The considered models of formation of radiation damage in the hematopoietic system and the level of the organism during long exposures with varying dose rate, and the model of radiation mortality rate of mammals, describing accelerated aging and the changing age-specific mortality rates in a dose-and dose rate radiation exposure.
The book presents the algorithms and results of calculations of the radiation risk in the process of interplanetary and orbital missions throughout the life of astronauts, as well as data on possible sacramentoa life expectancy. The new approaches to the regulation of radiation exposure and justifies the new lower acceptable dose to astronauts during flights and during the whole professional activity. Continue reading
Jupiter, the fifth in distance from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar system – distance from Sun-5.2 times further than Earth, and spends some turnover on orbit for almost 12 years. Equatorial diameter of Jupiter is 142 600 km (11 times the diameter of the Earth). The period of rotation of Jupiter is the shortest of all the planets – 9 h 50 min 30 s. at the equator and 9 h. 55 min. 40 s. in the mid-latitudes. Thus, the Jupiter, like the Sun, rotates as a rigid body – rotation speed varies in different latitudes. Because of the rapid rotation of this planet has strong compression at the poles. The mass of Jupiter is equal to 318 Earth masses. The average density of 1.33 g/cm3, which is close to the density of the Sun. The rotation axis of Jupiter is nearly perpendicular to the plane of its orbit. Even in a small telescope shows the polar compression of Jupiter and bands on its surface parallel to the equator of the planet
The Structure Of Jupiter
The visible surface of Jupiter is an upper level clouds surrounding the planet. This ensures that all details on the surface of Jupiter is constantly changing its appearance. From sustainable parts known Great Red spot, observed for over 300 years. It is a huge oval formation, the size of about 35,000 km in longitude and 14000 in latitude between the southern tropicheskii southern temperate bands. Continue reading