Radiation risk for astronauts (radiobiological rationale)
The book covers a fairly wide range of materials concerning the sources of cosmic rays affecting astronauts in the implementation of interplanetary and orbital space flight, the quantities of the doses, the reactions of individual systems and the whole organism of animals and humans, and changes its stability when the complex character of radiation exposure in space.
The results of a 14-year experiment on a large lot dogs with simulation values of the doses and nature of dose distribution in time, which will affect astronauts during the flight to Mars. The considered models of formation of radiation damage in the hematopoietic system and the level of the organism during long exposures with varying dose rate, and the model of radiation mortality rate of mammals, describing accelerated aging and the changing age-specific mortality rates in a dose-and dose rate radiation exposure.
The book presents the algorithms and results of calculations of the radiation risk in the process of interplanetary and orbital missions throughout the life of astronauts, as well as data on possible sacramentoa life expectancy. The new approaches to the regulation of radiation exposure and justifies the new lower acceptable dose to astronauts during flights and during the whole professional activity. Continue reading
Jupiter, the fifth in distance from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar system – distance from Sun-5.2 times further than Earth, and spends some turnover on orbit for almost 12 years. Equatorial diameter of Jupiter is 142 600 km (11 times the diameter of the Earth). The period of rotation of Jupiter is the shortest of all the planets – 9 h 50 min 30 s. at the equator and 9 h. 55 min. 40 s. in the mid-latitudes. Thus, the Jupiter, like the Sun, rotates as a rigid body – rotation speed varies in different latitudes. Because of the rapid rotation of this planet has strong compression at the poles. The mass of Jupiter is equal to 318 Earth masses. The average density of 1.33 g/cm3, which is close to the density of the Sun. The rotation axis of Jupiter is nearly perpendicular to the plane of its orbit. Even in a small telescope shows the polar compression of Jupiter and bands on its surface parallel to the equator of the planet
The Structure Of Jupiter
The visible surface of Jupiter is an upper level clouds surrounding the planet. This ensures that all details on the surface of Jupiter is constantly changing its appearance. From sustainable parts known Great Red spot, observed for over 300 years. It is a huge oval formation, the size of about 35,000 km in longitude and 14000 in latitude between the southern tropicheskii southern temperate bands. Continue reading
What is the biggest planet? This is of course Jupiter. The atmosphere of the biggest planet on Earth reaches 120 degrees Kelvin or minus 153 degrees Celsius. In addition, the atmosphere of the planet consists of 90% hydrogen and 10% helium. Still, astronomers can’t explain why the largest planet in the world has orange, pink, blue and brown spots. And all because at low temperature the atmosphere of Jupiter must be colorless.
There is only the assumption that the color of the clouds is colored by impurities of sulfur compounds. Also worth noting is that the coloring of the clouds is constantly changing. Photo of the largest planet in the form of a Huge red Spot was obtained by Voyager 1 spacecraft. In 1979, he flew over Jupiter at a distance of 9.2 million miles. The Photo shows a red spot too. This is an area that is too complex and variable wave motion.
This Photo of the largest planet Jupiter is considered to be the most clear, which were once obtained from the Earth. On Jupiter there are also storm clouds, as on Earth. This is the state of the atmosphere of Jupiter, you can see in the Photo below. Near the Great red Spot is the area of a riot of clouds. Low clouds are blue and high white. Here wysokiego and represent storm clouds. Scientists say that these clouds can hardly be seen as proof that the biggest planet in the solar system there is water. It is worth noting that on Jupiter winds reach speeds of 480 km/h. Continue reading