April 12, Russia celebrates cosmonautics Day. This holiday was established by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on 9 April 1962 in honor of the world’s first manned flight into space.
April 12, 1961 in earth orbit was launched the world’s first spaceship‑satellite “Vostok” with a man on Board. The launch of the first manned space craft was headed by Sergei Korolev, Anatoly Kirillov, Leonid Voskresenskiy.
Pilot‑cosmonaut of the ship was a Soviet citizen pilot major Yuri Gagarin. The start of the space multistage rocket was successful and after the set speed and separation from the last stage of the carrier rocket, the ship began a free flight on an orbit around the Earth.
After circling the globe, through 108 minutes after launch, was included braking propulsion system and the spacecraft‑the satellite began to descend from orbit to landing. In 10 hours 55 minutes Moscow time the astronaut landed in a given area of arable land in the Volga river near village of Smelovka in the Ternovsky district of the Saratov region.
The initiative to establish the Day of cosmonautics in the Soviet Union made a backup of Yuri Gagarin during the first manned mission into space — cosmonaut German Titov. He tachiarai on behalf of the government of the USSR to address the UN with the idea of organizing the world day of Astronautics .
In November 1968, at the 61st General conference of the International aeronautical Federation, it was decided to celebrate April 12, the world day of aviation and cosmonautics. The celebration of this day was confirmed by the decision of the Council of the International aeronautical Federation, adopted on 30 April 1969, upon the submission of the Federation of aviation sports of the USSR.
In the Russian Federation, cosmonautics Day was established as a memorable date by article 1.1 of the Federal law of 13 March 1995 “On days of military glory and memorable dates of Russia”.
In September 2000, the UN Committee on outer space was declared in honor of 40 anniversary of the first manned flight into space the first international St. George’s night (Yuri”s Night). in which in 2001 was attended by over 100 thousand people in 75 countries. The organizer of the annual event is the Advisory Council space generation (Space Generation Advisory Council).
On 7 April 2011 on the initiative of Russia the UN General Assembly declared 12 April International day of human flight into space on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the first step in the exploration of outer space committed by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. Co-authors of the resolution were more than 60 member countries of the UN.
In the years since the first flight of Yuri Gagarin in space was visited by about 500 people from more than 40 countries .
August 6, 1961, was launched spacecraft “Vostok‑2” with cosmonaut Herman Titov aboard. His flight lasted more than a day. 11 and 12 August 1962 on ships “Vostok‑3” and “Vostok‑4” was launched Andrian Nikolayev and Pavel Popovich, and on 16 June 1963 — first woman‑cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova.
The next step in the development of Russian cosmonautics was the establishment in 1964 of a bench of the Voskhod spacecraft. The crew of this ship were placed in a descent vehicle without spacesuits.
March 18, 1965 was the start of the ship “Voskhod‑2” design which were made improvements associated with the release of astronaut in outer space, in particular, created by folding the airlock and sluicing system. In this flight, cosmonaut Alexei Leonov was the first to spacewalk. His time aboard ship was 12 minutes.
In January 1969 during the flight of spacecraft “Soyuz‑4 and Soyuz‑5” was created the first experimental orbital station. become an important step towards the emergence of long-term space expeditions. The mission program included the automatic convergence of the two ships docking and manual docking, the spacewalk and transfer cosmonauts Alexei Yeliseyev and Yevgeny Khrunov in the “Soyuz‑4” and then descending into the ship.
July 21, 1969 man first set foot on the moon. This man was Neil Armstrong, commander of the American ship “Apollo‑11”.
On 19 April 1971 the first multi-purpose station “Salyut” was bred into orbit. On April 23, 1971 to the “Salute” was sent to the spacecraft “Soyuz‑10” with the crew.
In 1975, a joint experimental flight of the spacecrafts “Soyuz” and “Apollo” was the beginning of the development of international cooperation in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes.
In February 1986, was placed in orbit on the base unit of orbital complex “Mir”. During the operation of the complex was the technology of biomedical support extended manned missions in space and set absolute world records for duration of continuous human presence in space: Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov — 366 days, Valery Polyakov — 438 days. The longest flying women made Elena Kondakova in 1994-1995 duration of 169 days and Shannon lucid (USA) in March‑September 1996 a duration of 188 days.
With “World” was carried out extensive experiments and research in all traditional areas of manned space flight, carried out several large international programs. Total station “Mir” was visited by 104 people from 12 countries, including: USA, France, Germany, Syria, Japan, the UK, Austria, Canada.
Duration of stay of the astronauts on Board the space station “Mir” has amounted 3641 day. The Mir station was de-orbited and sunk in the Pacific ocean on 23 March 2001.
In November 1998 the start of the module, functional cargo block Zarya created in State space scientific production center named after M. Khrunichev, began the creation of earth orbit on the International space station (ISS). 2 November 2000 on the ship “Union TM‑31” on ISS there arrived the crew of the first expedition under the command of William shepherd (USA). From that day on the ISS is constantly manned station. On Board, one after another, for several months the crews of the basic expeditions, consisting of Russian cosmonauts and American astronauts.
On December 28, 2012 was approved the state program on development of space activity of Russia for 2013-2020, which involves a growing share of the rocket and space industry in the global market to 14% by 2015, and the construction of a new Russian spaceport “Vostochny” in the Amur region. The responsible executor of the state program is the Federal space Agency (Roscosmos).
In January 2013, Roscosmos jointly with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) established a working group in which among the promising areas for the further development of space exploration scientists plan to discuss the issue of manned flight to the moon .
In February 2013, the American of Italian origin, the chief Executive of investment firm Wilshire Associates Dennis Tito (Dennis Tito), which became in 2001 the first space tourist aboard the ISS, announced the creation of the organization Inspiration Mars Foundation, which is organizing a “historic journey to Mars and back” in 2018.